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According to the evidence has been found to Dr. Sankalia and his colleagues in the Deccan College that there was a human Civilization 1 to a lakh 50 thousand years ago. These scholars found stone age implements on the banks of mutha river and some at the bund garden area and a few at the dattawadi area. - The name Pune has its origin from the copper plates dated 758 and 768 A.D. At that time this area or region was ruled bye the rashtrakutas. In the Copper plates of 758 A.D. it is named as punya Vishaya where as in the copper plate of 768 A.D. it is named as punaka vishaya. Vishaya means region, a geographical area. In the copper plate of 993 A.D. It is named as punaka desha.Later on it was refered to as punekavadi.Punevadi, kasabe Pune. There was temple of punyeshwara on the bank of mutha. Saint namdev (1270 - 1350) visited this temple. Poona gazetteer explains that this city is situated on the confluence of mula and mutha rivers. The confluence / sangam of two rivers is called as punya. Hence the name Pune. It is also referred to as punyanagari. - The Pune city has long tradition and history, various communities living together for years together and the people in the region have great achievement, hence the city is called a historical city. Chhatrapati Shivaji the great king of Marathas has established his kingdom in this region. Shahaji , Shivaji's father and grand father Maloji occupied this territory for over a century. Shivaji enjoyed his childhood in Lal Mahal along with his mother and mentor Dadoji Kondadev in Pune. Everyday jijabai used to visit the temple of Ganpati in Kasba peth. Hence she helped for construction of the temple. Shivaji conquered Sinhagad fort from his commander Tanaji in 1670. Pune city has such long tradition and history. - After the death of Shivaji there was turmoil in the deccan due to campaigns launch by Aurangzeb. However, from 1713 to 1818 pune city and also the maratha kingdom was ruled by the peshwa, the prime ministers of king of marathas , the chatrapati shahu of Satara. The first peshwa Balaji Vishvanath was living in Saswad, a village about 15 km far away from pune. As saswad was inconvenient place to rule. After the death of Balaji Vishvanath his successor the second peshwa Bajirao (1720-40) constructed a palace named Shaniwarwada in 1730-32. The wall around the palace was constructed after some times and the new building called Mahals were built when peshwas were rule over pune.
- Thorale bajirao expanded the maratha empire to the north. After that the third peshwa , Nanasaheb peshwa (1740- 1761) hold his position and built parvati temple during his times. In 1761, the marathas were defeated at the battle of panipat and lost two leaders Sadshivrao and Vishwasrao along with thousands of sepoys. After the Nanasaheb peshwa Thorale Madhavrao (1761- 1772) hold the position and expand the maratha empire by defeated the Nizam and expanding the kingdom. Thorale Madhavrao was killed by the sepoys hired by Raghunathrao peshwa on instructions reveived from Anandibai, wife of Raghunathrao, uncle of madhavrao peshwa. After that Savai Madhavrao peshwa was hold the place. He constructed building in shaniwarwada, expanded parvati temple, developed Sarasbaug Ganesh temple and also built a fountain of 1000 outlets in Shaniwarwada.He ended his life in 1795. The last peshwa was second Bajirao, son of Raghunathrao peshwa. He joined hands with British and lastly surrendered to the british and after that the peshwa and maratha kingdom was ended.
- Pune is known as Queen of Deccan because of its historical ,social , cultural and political improtance and its picturesque surroundings in the Deccan. - A place for quality education with the advent of british, the british educational system of formal school and colleges was started. Poona sanskrit college was stated in vishrambagwada. This is now converted in to present day Deccan College (1851). Agarkar, Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gohale and other leader of Maharashtra were educated at the Deccan College.
- After realizing the importance of national education, there will be starting of Fergusson college(1885), New English School(1880) , High School for Indian girls (1884), Nutan Marathi Vidyalaya(1883) and well known education institutions like Bhave High School, Shivaji Maratha High school, Sarasvati Mandir were started.
- For higher education their is various institutions is here in pune like Poona college of Engineering and for Medical education Sassoon Hospital is stated which is now converted into B. J. Medical College, the Law College was stated in 1924. Poona Agricultural College was started in 1908 with British Principals the leading agricultural education institute from pune. S. P. College is stated in 1916 and the N. Wadia College is stated in 1932.
- Thousands of students from outside pune get admission and after taking education from such colleges, they later on settle their life throughout the length and breadth of india. After independences the poona university started form 10th feb 1949. Under the control of this university, their is various institutions are established like NCL, NIV, IUCAA, C-DAC, IAT which now the well-known research institutions. Now days their is various new and recognized institutions are started it pune.
- Pune is now known as growing industrial city of India. Because Mumbai was full of industries and now it is locked by the Government of Maharashtra. So the industrialists in Mumbai preferred Pune for starting industries. Now a days numbers of industries were stated along the Mumbai-Pune highway some of them are Bajaj Auto,Bajaj Tempo, Telco, Geaware's Cromption and Greaves, Thermax, Alfa-Laval,The Kirloskar group of companies like Kirloskar Oil Engines, Kirloskar Brothers, Garware group companies, Garware Wallrope, Garware Nylons, Philips, Thermax and many more leading companies are settled in pune. At Bhosari, Hadapsar, Nagar road the industrial estates have been developed. In pune well established and organized Maratha Chember of Commerce and industries and Agricultural has also very good stock market.
- The Pune Stock Exchange monitors its transactions. Pune city is linked by air to Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Delhi, Mumbai and also to other cities in India with good telecom network. Even now a days internet network in pune made pune's institutions, industries, home so close to the world of information. The most important thing is that for industrial growth knowledgeable and skilled technical manpower and peaceful environment avoiding enmities among the workers and so that they can work very actively. Multinational companies have spread their net by establishing branches in pune, finding increasing market for their products.
- Pune is changing according to the various fields. Peoples attracted towards pune for best education or for employment opportunities. South Indians have formed their neighborhood in Rasta Peth, Whereas Sindhis have settled in Pimpri, Christains have settled in Camp Area. Whereas Muslims majority reside in Ganj, Nana Peth i.e East Pune . Gujarathis and Marwadi, Jains have majority in Bhavani ,Shukrawar and Nana Peths, Sikhs have founded their Gurudwara in Ganesh Peth, Marathas and Brahmins are everywhere.
- There are increasing house building activity in extension area and in pune city also. Former buildings are converted into plaza, Apartments, Arcade, many co-operative housing societies have constructed homes for their members. Still a large population is lives in slums and the slum areas are also increasing day by day. Women of Pune are educated and try to get a job in different fields for e.g. they perform well as professionals in areas like music , dance ,acting in cinema or TV and Dramas , journalism , research and now in design, dentistry, medicine, computer field also. Now days women's in pune drive a car with very confidence. Hotels and eating lovers are increasing and the taste of pune people is charging. There is increasing nature to outside eating. Hence dining halls are flourishing. Now days many peoples preferred readymade things - may be chapathis or modak or puran-poli. Modern pizza Huts, Macdonalds have attracted the young and the elderly in recently times.
- In Pune's history and in and cultural life is influenced by Lokamanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920) and his other colleagues V. K. Chiplunkar, M.B. Namjoshi, G.G. Agarkar, N.C. Kelkar, N.C. Kelkar, Prin. V.S. Apte and other great persons like M.G. Ranade, Jotiba Phule, G.K. Gokhale, Lokhitvadi, R.G. Bhandarkar started so many activities. In this period Lok. B.G.Tilak plays a main role. At that time he started the news paper called Kesari and Maratha in year 1881.
- He also established Fergusson College in 1885 and New English School in 1880. He was imprisonment so many times on charge of Rajadroha. From 1908 to 1914 ,Tilak was imprisonment at Mandalay because of great dissatisfaction all over India. He was an all India leader. He struggled very hard for the freedom of India at the Indian national congress and various other platform. Lastly he failed a suit against British officers. He stated various institutions in pune during his period. He also stated Ganesh and Shivjayanti festivals to bring the messes together. So the period from 1880 to 1920 is called as the Tilak era in the history of pune city.
- After his death various prominent institutions were stated in pune. Some of them are Tilak Smark Mandir, Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Tilak Statue at Mandal , Tilak Swimming Tank, Tilak College of Education ,Tilak Road.
- After the death of Lok.Tilak , Mahatma Gandhi took leadership of all India. Gandhi had his followers in pune through a new front and leaders like N.V Gadgil ,Keshavrao Jedhe, Dr. N.B.Parulekar, Shankarrao More started a newspaper called sakal.
- Shri V.R. Kothari started another newspaper called Prabhat led to the notn -brahmin moments. Many followers of Tilak entered Hindu Mahasabha due to influence of Svatantryaveer savarkar. After independence, various forces in pune will be emerged .
One of them is S.M.Joshi and N.G.Goray , the socialist leaders and another force is lead by the present Bharatiay Janta Party under the leadership of Rambhau Mhalagi. Pune city took part in Samyukh Maharashtra Movement launched Goa liberation movement under the leadership of Jayantrao Tilak and his Colleagues. Jayantrao Tilak was appointed as speaker of Maharashtra Legislative Council and earlier worked as Rajya Sabha Member. Many of the persons were elected from pune for Rajya sabha and Lok Sabha like N.G Gorya ,Vitthalrao Gadgil, Suresh Kalmadi, Pradeep Rawat, Vitthal Tupe, Mohan Dharia worked as Minister in the central Govt. and later on worked as Dy. Chairman, ,Planning Commission during Janata Party rule. Sharad Pawar former chief minister of Maharashtra and presently founder of Nationalist Congress belongs to Pune District.
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